วันศุกร์ที่ 12 เมษายน พ.ศ. 2556
Titanium is a chemical element typically characterized, in its purest form, by its luster and metallic-white color. It derives its name from the Greek word titanos, with respect to the Titans of Greek mythology. Titanium is present in abundance in the Sun and meteorites, and is the 9th most abundant element in the Earth's crust. In 1946, 155 years after its discovery, William Justin Kroll showed that it is possible to produce titanium by reducing titanium tetrachloride with magnesium. Over the period, the element has gained wide prominence, and a large part of the credit for this goes to its uses, which seem to be increasing with time. Titanium Properties Atomic Number: 22 Atomic Mass: 47.867 (1) Melting Point: 3034 °F Boiling Point: 5949 °F Strong and light Corrosion resistant If titanium is considered so useful today, it is because of these properties that it boasts of. It is as strong as steel, and yet very light. In fact, it is known for its excellent strength-to-weight ratio. The metal resists corrosion at higher temperature because of the protective oxide coating which forms on it. Uses of Titanium Most of the uses of this element revolve around its alloys. Of the total titanium produced commercially, approximately 65 percent is used to make the alloys by mixing it with steel. Owing to its excellent strength, it is added to various metals, including steel, to increase their strength and make them corrosion-resistant. It is also known to make the alloy lighter. An alloy of titanium and steel, for instance, will weigh lesser than what pure steel weighs. Titanium Rings »Being durable and dent-resistant, titanium is quite popular in the jewelry making industry. In fact, titanium rings and bands have become a rage of late, and put their gold and silver counterparts in the backseat. The metal is also used to produce small artificial gemstones, which are relatively softer than the real gemstones. »Alloys of titanium are used in eyeglass frames, as it makes them highly resistant, light, and long-lasting. Even laptops and a range of cell phones are made of titanium nowadays. »Being light and strong, titanium is also used in firearms manufacturing, wherein it has replaced steel and aluminum as the most-preferred metal. Golf clubs »In sports, titaniumis used to make a wide variety of sporting equipment, like golf clubs, tennis rackets, cricket bats, hockey sticks, helmet grills, bicycle frames, etc. Other than racing bicycles, it is also used in racing bikes and cars as it provides strength and durability, without increasing the weight of the machine. »Titanium dioxide, one of the most important compounds of this element, is predominantly used in manufacturing white paint. Other than that, it is also used in production of toothpaste, paper, and plastic. »A relatively new entry in the long list of titanium uses is the introduction of titanium cookware and metal art, which is gaining wide popularity with time. The titanium cookware in particular -- along with tents and lanterns made of this metal -- are quite popular among backpackers. »Due to its opaque nature, it is widely used in industrial applications, like ultrasonic welding and wave soldering. »As it produces thick fumes in moist air, titanium tetrachloride is used for sky writing, which is done by releasing the compound from an aircraft, and for smoke screens. Hip joint Dental implants »In the field of medicine, titanium is used to make pacemakers, artificial replacements for hip and knee joints, crutches, dental implants, surgical instruments, as well as bone plates and screws. An individual using titanium dental implants can undergo MRI examination as these implants are not magnetic. »Titanium is also used for manufacturing aircraft and spacecraft, i.e., the frame and engine components of these machines. Of the early uses of titanium in the field of aerospace engineering, its use in the production of SR-71 "Blackbird" in 1960s has by far been the most popular. This was, in fact, the first instance wherein it was used extensively in an aircraft. Over the course of time, its uses in this field have increased manifold, and the recent examples of aircraft in which titanium has been used extensively include the likes of Boeing and Airbus. »The strength of this metal and its ability to resist saline water makes it an immensely popular component of marine engineering. It is widely used for manufacturing propeller shafts and other such components of the ship, which are exposed to saline water for prolonged duration. This corrosion resistance also makes titanium an important component of desalination plants, wherein saline water is converted to fresh water. Architectural Wonders Made of Titanium Of late, titanium has also become popular in the field of architectural engineering, owing to its superior strength and relatively less weight. Interestingly, its metallic-white color, which is closely associated with space exploration, has contributed to its use in several monuments; one of the most prominent examples being the 350-foot Monument to the Conquerors of Space in Moscow. Monument to the Conquerors of Space The 350-foot titanium-clad Monument to the Conquerors of Space was constructed outside the Exhibition of Achievements of the National Economy (known as the All-Russia Exhibition Centre today) in Moscow in 1964, to celebrate the outstanding achievements of the Soviet people in the realms of space exploration. Yuri Gagarin Monument The Yuri Gagarin memorial -- a 131-foot titanium statue of the Soviet cosmonaut, erected in honor of him being the first human in space -- is yet another architectural marvel, which is built from this metal. As surprising as it may sound, a detectable amount of titanium is found in our body as well. It is believed that we take in approximately 0.8 mg of the same every day, and the same passes through the body without getting absorbed. In the human body, titanium is non-toxic and non-reactive, which means it wouldn't cause harm to us even if it existed in relatively larger quantities; that also explains why it is widely used in a range of medical procedures.
วันพฤหัสบดีที่ 11 เมษายน พ.ศ. 2556
Whether you’re doing business across the pond or just taking a vacation (that’s 'holiday' in British English), understanding the differences between U.S. and U.K. business cultures might just save you some embarrassment. Just because the Americans and the British speak the same language, doesn’t mean we can always communicate with each other. As with any cultural divide, the key to effective interaction is understanding. Definitions of Success One big difference between the U.S. and U.K. business cultures is the way that the different cultures define success. The United States is famous for its love of capitalist enterprise, and this cultural tradition has affected the way that Americans understand success. In the States, a successful businessperson is almost exclusively defined as someone who has a good salary and who has achieved financial success. It’s true that these people usually also hold high positions in their companies, but position isn’t necessarily a requirement for most people. In the U.K., by contrast, position is much more important, and being well-connected is not merely a means to an end. After Work Business people in the U.S. and the U.K. tend to have very different lives outside work. In the United States, it’s very common to see a business executive or top-level manager at a little league baseball game or school play. In addition, many American businesspeople are engaged in church activities, volunteerism, or have other responsibilities in the community. As a result of having so much to do after work, it’s not common in the U.S. for business people to socialize with colleagues after work. This is very different from the situation in many other countries, including Britain, where having a pint with coworkers is a near-universal after-work pastime. Work-Life Balance These days, business culture is changing all over the world, including in the United States and Great Britain. Things that were once taboo, such as discussing one’s salary openly, are becoming more widely accepted. Another big change taking place in both countries, but perhaps more evidently in the U.S., is a greater emphasis on work-life balance. American employees were once expected to devote themselves completely to their employers, or at least to appear to do so. Now, however, having a family life and other interests outside work is becoming more and more common. Employers are beginning to acknowledge that their workers are multifaceted, and they’re taking greater steps to facilitate a balanced, happy life for employees. Small Talk If you’re meeting business partners or meeting new people during your travels, you might have to adjust the topics you are used to chatting about. Small talk in the U.S. and the U.K. are very different, and finding common ground can prove difficult if you don’t do a little preparation in advance. In the U.K., people are more engaged in world news and other global concerns than Americans are. Americans tend to be more focused on the situation at home, and are particularly interested in celebrity gossip and sports news. Americans also like to discuss their families and compare notes on mutual acquaintances, while the British might be more reserved in that arena. These are just a few of the cultural differences between two strong English-speaking nations. A lack of cultural understanding can lead to tension and miscommunication, no matter how good our intentions are. That’s why, if you’re planning a jaunt across the Atlantic, it’s a good idea to brush up on your intercultural communication savvy.
For a sector as versatile as home improvement, the metal roofing segment, indeed, has been a competent cynosure. Perhaps, the metal roofing industry, from the outset may seem too colossal to invite perspective. Well, for one, you must know that metal roofs are far beneficial than what you think they are. If you foresee longevity for your residential roof, metal roofing systems is what you must opt for. Rot- and warp-resistant structures, metal roofs are esthetically designed. They are light-weight and durable to sustain architectural integrity. Metal roofs are color-locked; painted with quality polymers, the color holds on to the roof for years. Homes feel cooler; metal roofs don't drink down on energy. Metal roofing panels earned recognition when 5V-Crimp panels debuted in the industry -- a panel with a classy v-design that works toward structure toughening and bonding. The 5V-Crimp panels, longitudinally measure 24'' braced with support ribs at a height of ½''. The traditional v-design is what enhances panel strength. The 5V-Crimp panels are fabricated from 24- or 26-gauge prepainted Galvalume. An aluminum zinc alloy, Galvalume is coated over the metal panels to promote longevity and prevent corrosion.